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Industry Research

Industry research on the use of funori.

Funori: Overview of a 300-Year-Old Consolidant

Author(s): Joseph R. Swider and Martha Smith

Source: Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Summer, 2005),pp. 117-126

Published by: Maney Publishing on behalf of The American Institute for Conservation.


Funori, a product from seaweed found mostly in Japan, has been used as an adhesive and a consolidant for centuries. Many conservators are familiar with funori but may be unaware of its chemistry and reliable methods for its preparation. Funori has been used successfully for decades at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery’s Department of Conservation and Scientific Research in the paper, East Asian paintings, and object conservation laboratories. This article is a review of the conservation and scientific literature to give conservators insight into the chemistry of funori and related seaweeds and to propose methods for its preparation.

Read the complete paper at JAIC online

Potentiality of Funori to restore physical breaks of deteriorated cellulosic fibers

Author: Elisabetta Andria

Source: Cero Art – Conservation, Exposition, Restauration, D’Objects D’Art


In the last twenty years funori has become known outside Japan thanks to its capacity not to modify the appearance of the painted surface. Moreover, because of the similar chemical nature of funori and cellulosic fibres that make the textile support, conservators have supposed funori can restore depolymerised fibres. The experimentation  just started from this assumption and it tried to verify that supposition.

Read the complete Dossier at  CeroArt

Preserving a Master: Edvard Munch & His Painted Sketches

Author(s): Erika Gohde Sandbakken and Eva Storevik Tveit (Norway)

Source:  Journal of Urban Culture Research


This paper will give an overview of challenges encountered by the paintings conservators at the Munch Museum in Oslo. The collection contains world-famous artworks. Munch’s paintings are often requested for exhibition loans and many travel all round the world. A great deal of the work required of us is linked withsuch loans. However, the museum also owns approximately 150 canvas sketches,which are even more in need of conservation. Most of them were painted in the period 1909–16; the largest measures up to 5 x 11.5 metres. Munch painted and stored many of them outdoors for years; approximately 51 have been stored on rolls since Munch’s day. His handling and painting techniques and storage have led to extreme deterioration of the sketches and from 2006–12 extensive conservation has been conducted. The main challenges were concentrated on the consolidation of considerable areas of unstable paint, but soiling, water damages, saltef”orescence etc. were also attended to.

Read the Full Paper at JUCR

Jain Painting

Source: National Museum of Scotland


Destined for the new Inspired by Nature gallery, the painting was in poor condition when it first appeared in the National Museum Collections Centre for conservation. It was extremely dirty, with some permanent staining, and there were several sharp creases to the cloth where it had been roughly folded. Of most concern to our conservation team was the very poor condition of the painted surface, which was extremely fragile. The matte paint layer showed signs of being only loosely held onto the cotton, and much of the paint was either actively powdering or crumbling away. Funori, a Japanese seaweed was used as consolidating medium. Although not commonly used in textile conservation to date, Funori has two distinct advantages over other conservation grade consolidants in that it dries matte and is known to work extremely well with fine, powdery paints. Scientific studies have also identified other good ageing properties, for example, it does not yellow or shrink over time.

Read the Full Story at: Nation Museum of Scotland

Colorimetric evaluation of three adhesives used in the consolidation of contemporary matte paint after artificial ageing

Author(s): Rosario Llamas*, Demian Ramos San Pedro

Source: Conservar Património 20 (2014) 11-21 | doi:10.14568/cp2014002 ARP – Associação Profissional de Conservadores-Restauradores de Portugal – http://revista.arp.org.pt


Of all the problems associated to contemporary painting, the most complex is probably that which
concerns powdering matte surfaces, both for their technical characteristics and optical properties and for the aesthetic significance associated to these types of finishes. These pictorial surfaces are technically complex due to the high risk of irreversible alterations associated to the appearance of the treated surface and the potential for streaking, tide lines, changes in colour, darkening, added gloss and changes in texture during the treatment process. For this study, a colorimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the behaviour of three adhesives commonly used in the consolidation of these types of painted surfaces, to determine the effect of ageing on the adhesives and quantify their stability as a function of adhesive type, concentration, and application method. Of all the adhesives, funori did not result in significant changes when aged using this method.

Read the Full Paper: Accelerated aging

Preservation of Dr. Dale T. Mortensen Chalkboard: Employ No Friction on this Surface, Please.

Author: Susan Russick, Northwestern University Library

Source: Beyond The Book, Preservation and Conservation Research At Northwestern University Library


Dr. Dale T. Mortensen, (1939-2014) who won the 2010 Nobel Prize for economics and is known for his work on labor economics and frictional unemployment, taught at Northwestern from 1965 to 2011. After Dr. Mortensen’s death in 2014, his chalkboard was removed from the wall of his office on campus. Before the chalkboard could be stored in University Archives, a funori treatment was used to affix the chalk to the board so that the unbound media would not dust off.